Hong Kong and Macao pre-service teachers’ sense of efficacy: A cross-cultural investigation using the Chinese version of the 12-item TSE (C-TSE)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Teacher efficacy has been shown to be an important variable predicting teachers' capacity to contribute to reform efforts. Given the role that future teachers are expected to play in educational reform, this research aimed to measure the teacher efficacy of samples of pre-service teachers in Hong Kong and Macao using the Chinese version of the 12-item Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (C-TSE). A cross-cultural perspective was important because it provided that opportunity to test the robustness of the instrument and to look at broader socio-cultural issues of teacher efficacy in two locations through the use of C-TSE. Sixty-six Hong Kong pre-service teachers and 66 Macao pre-service teachers participated in the study. In general, Hong Kong pre-service teachers were found to be more efficacious than the Macao cohort. However, the factor structures of the scale were not the same for the sub-samples. It is suggested that, on the one hand, programme characteristics and/or local cultures need to be considered when interpreting these results. On the other hand, the full 24-item scale, with more items that envisage and reflect particular classroom tasks and situations, could be useful to explore the dimensionality of pre-service teachers' sense of efficacy. This work contributes to an understanding of issues and problems relating to the measure of Chinese pre-service teachers' efficacy beliefs. Copyright © 2006 De La Salle University, Philippines.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-62
JournalThe Asia-Pacific Education Researcher
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2006


Hong Kong
educational reform


Hui, S. K.-F., Kennedy, K. J., & Cheung, H.-Y. (2006). Hong Kong and Macao pre-service teachers' sense of efficacy: A cross-cultural investigation using the Chinese version of the 12-item TSE (C-TSE). The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 15(1), 41-62.


  • Teacher Education
  • Teacher Education and Professional Development