This article comprehensively reviews the higher education policymaking and implementation in China since the reform and opening up in 1978. With the presented statistical data, this article discusses the intended and unintended consequences of China's higher education reform. In addition, by critically reviewing the literature and analyzing the data on China's higher education reform, this study concludes its outcomes into decentralization, stratification, massification, marketization, and internationalization. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
CitationXiong, W., Yang, J., & Shen, W. (2022). Higher education reform in China: A comprehensive review of policymaking, implementation, and outcomes since 1978. China Economic Review, 72, Article 101752. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chieco.2022.101752
- China's higher education
- Higher education reform
- Higher education policies