The current study investigated the concentration of heavy metals (HMs) in human hair associated with fish and rice consumption in Wuhan City, central China. The mean values of As in 8/10 fish species exceeded the food safety standard of 0.015 mg/kg. The mean values (mg/kg) of HMs in rice followed a descending order of Zn (13.7)> Cu (1.9)>Cr (0.51)>As (0.11) >Cd (0.08) >Pb (0.04). The ascending order of HMs for male hair was Cd < As < Cr < Pb < Cu < Zn, while As < Cd < Cr < Pb < Cu < Zn for female. 30% of hair Cr and 22% of hair Zn contents exceeded the recommended values. The middle age (19–44) and adult (45–59) groups were the most vulnerable group, as the concentration for most elements was high in these age groups. A significant correlation was found between fish-eating frequency and hair Zn (r = 0.213; p < 0.05), and As (r = 0.204; p < 0.05). High odd ratios were found in a population with high fish-eating frequency, especially for Pb (7.19), As (3.1), Zn (3.83), and Cd (3.7). A significant non-carcinogenic risk was associated with Cr exposure through consuming herbivores, filter feeders, and omnivorous fish. The cancer risk values of Cd exposure (1.54E-04) via rice consumption and As exposure (1.25E-04) via consumption of omnivores fish indicate precautionary measures. Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Early online date||Apr 2023|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - Apr 2023|
CitationAli, M. U., Wang, C., Li, Y., Li, R., Yang, S., Ding, L., . . . Wong, M. H. (2023). Heavy metals in fish, rice, and human hair and health risk assessment in Wuhan city, central China. Environmental Pollution, 328. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2023.121604
- Dietary products
- Heavy metals
- Health risks