Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in air particulate PM₂̣₅ (less than 2.5 μm), TSP (Total Suspend Particle) and dust samples from different households of two major urban centers of Pearl River Delta (PRD). ∑PBDEs in PM₂̣₅ of households in Guangzhou (GZ) (52.9–2.03 × 10³ pg mˉ³ mean 239 pg mˉ³) were significantly higher than Hong Kong (HK) (0.25–160 pg mˉ³, mean 43.8 pg mˉ³). Higher ∑PBDEs occurred in indoor TSP, ranging between 117 and 1.14 × 10³ pg mˉ³, with a median of 333 pg mˉ³. BDE-209 was the largest contributor to PBDEs contained in household dust, PM₂̣₅ and TSP samples of GZ. Among the particles in household environment, PM₂̣₅ accumulated the highest PBDEs, especially BDE-209. The constant Cparticle/Cdust values suggested that sorption is the dominant mechanism through which PBDEs are associated with settled dust and airborne particles. PBDEs were fairly uniform from urban sites to suburban sites, indicating the predominant indoor sources of PBDEs. Compared with indoor PM₂̣₅, indoor dust ingestion made an important contribution of particle associated PBDEs exposure for adults (25 years old) and toddlers (1–2 years old). Non-dietary exposure dominated total PBDEs exposure, accounting for 91.8–99.0% exposure dose for toddlers and 45.1–82.2% for adults. Dust ingestion (69.3–96.1%) was the predominant PBDEs exposure route for toddlers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
CitationWang, W., Zheng, J., Chan, C.-Y., Huang, M.-j., Cheung, K. C., & Wong, M. H. (2014). Health risk assessment of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) contained in residential air particulate and dust in Guangzhou and Hong Kong. Atmospheric Environment, 89, 786-796.
- Non-dietary exposure
- Household dust
- Urban-to-suburban change
- Particle fraction