Globalisation and the expansion of shadow education: Changing shapes and forces of private supplementary tutoring

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapters

Abstract

This chapter has demonstrated that shadow education has become a global phenomenon, and is becoming more prevalent in many contexts. Recognising shadow education as an important agenda for research, policy and educational development is therefore crucial. The chapter has identified the changing shapes and changing forces for the expansion of shadow education in relation to globalisation. Parallel to the corporatisation of global education due to globalisation (Spring, Globalization of education: an introduction (2nd ed.). Routledge, London, 2015), shadow education has developed from a rather informal activity to a more systematic business. Particularly striking are tutorial companies that are franchised across countries. This chapter has also highlighted the role of globalisation in driving the demand for shadow education. When schooling becomes increasingly globalised, shadow education follows, although it can become either more similar to regular schooling or more distinct with more ‘glocalised’ and flexible curricula and teaching approaches. Shadow education also expands because of the global culture of educational commodification as education becomes increasingly privatised and marketized. Copyright © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThird international handbook of globalisation, education and policy research
EditorsJoseph ZAJDA
Place of PublicationCham
PublisherSpringer
Pages679–697
ISBN (Electronic)9783030660031
ISBN (Print)9783030660024
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Citation

Yung, K. W. H., & Bray, M. (2021). Globalisation and the expansion of shadow education: Changing shapes and forces of private supplementary tutoring. In J. Zajda (Ed.), Third international handbook of globalisation, education and policy research (pp. 679–697). Cham: Springer.

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