Gender differences in creative thinking revisited: Findings from analysis of variability

Jing Mavis HE WU, Wan-chi WONG

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67 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigated gender differences in creativity among 985 schoolchildren (499 boys, 486 girls) by analyzing both means and variability. A relatively new creativity test, the Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production (TCT-DP), was employed to gain a more refined understanding of gender differences in creativity using a gestalt approach. Whereas the results of analyses of means generally supported the Gender Similarities Hypothesis, the variability analyses tended to support the Greater Male Variability Hypothesis and the Gender Difference Hypothesis. Analyses of the TCT-DP subscales revealed that both genders have their relative strengths and weaknesses in creative thinking. Whereas girls outperformed boys in thoroughness of thinking, boys outperformed girls in boundary-breaking thinking. Variability analyses further showed that more boys clustered in the two extremes of the composite score. Significantly greater variability was found for males on five criteria of the TCT-DP. The educational implications of such a complex pattern of gender differences are discussed. With a view to searching for an explanation for gender differences, several lines of further research are proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)807-811
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2011


He, W.-J., & Wong, W.-C. (2011). Gender differences in creative thinking revisited: Findings from analysis of variability. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(7), 807-811. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.06.027


  • Creativity
  • Gender difference hypothesis
  • Gender similarities hypothesis
  • Greater male variability hypothesis
  • Variability analyses


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