Gender and cultural differences in school motivation

Hanke KORPERSHOEK, Ronnel Bornasal KING, Dennis Michael MCINERNEY, Ramzi N. NASSER, Fraide A. GANOTICE, David A. WATKINS

Research output: Contribution to journalArticles


The purpose of this research was to explore gender differences and cultural differences in school motivation among students from eight culturally diverse groups from Western and non-Western societies. The selected groups come from Hong Kong, the Philippines, Singapore, Australia, the Netherlands, and Qatar. More than 10,000 secondary school students reported their mastery, performance, social, and extrinsic motivation. Results showed (very) small to moderately large gender differences, which were largely in line with prior research in Western societies. Moreover, significant differences in school motivation across the eight cultural groups were found, however, only the Qatari sample strongly deviated from the other samples. In all cultural groups, females had slightly higher scores on mastery motivation and social motivation (except for Qatari students), and in several Western and non-Western samples, males had slightly higher scores on performance motivation. Gender differences in extrinsic motivation were less straightforward. Copyright © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Original languageEnglish
JournalResearch Papers in Education
Early online dateJul 2019
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Jul 2019


Korpershoek, H., King, R. B., McInerney, D. M., Nasser, R. N., Ganotice, F. A., & Watkins, D. A. (2019). Gender and cultural differences in school motivation. Research Papers in Education. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/02671522.2019.1633557


  • Personal investment theory
  • School motivation
  • Cross-cultural comparisons
  • Gender differences
  • Secondary education

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