Fundamental movement skills testing in children with cerebral palsy

Catherine Mamaid CAPIO, Cindy H. P. SIT, Bruce ABERNETHY

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose. To examine the inter-rater reliability and comparative validity of product-oriented and process-oriented measures of fundamental movement skills among children with cerebral palsy (CP). 

Method. In total, 30 children with CP aged 6 to 14 years (Mean=9.83, SD=2.5) and classified in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels IIII performed tasks of catching, throwing, kicking, horizontal jumping and running. Process-oriented assessment was undertaken using a number of components of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2), while product-oriented assessment included measures of time taken, distance covered and number of successful task completions. Cohen's kappa, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and tests to compare correlated correlation coefficients were performed. 

Results. Very good inter-rater reliability was found. Process-oriented measures for running and jumping had significant associations with GMFCS, as did seven product-oriented measures for catching, throwing, kicking, running and jumping. Product-oriented measures of catching, kicking and running had stronger associations with GMFCS than the corresponding process-oriented measures. 

Conclusion. Findings support the validity of process-oriented measures for running and jumping and of product-oriented measures of catching, throwing, kicking, running and jumping. However, product-oriented measures for catching, kicking and running appear to have stronger associations with functional abilities of children with CP, and are thus recommended for use in rehabilitation processes. Copyright © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2519-2528
JournalDisability and Rehabilitation
Issue number25-26
Publication statusPublished - 2011


Capio, C. M., Sit, C. H. P., & Abernethy, B. (2011). Fundamental movement skills testing in children with cerebral palsy. Disability and Rehabilitation, 33(25-26), 2519-2528. doi: 10.3109/09638288.2011.577502


  • Fundamental movement skills
  • ICF-CY
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Children


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