Background: Foot posture which forms the distal supporting structure influences on postural stability. Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) who are more likely to be overweight or obese may present with flat foot with symptoms that affect daily activities. The aim of this study was to compare the foot posture and body composition measures between children with and without DCD. In addition, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between foot posture and fat percentage.
Methods: Fifty-nine children with DCD (mean age = 8.07±1.10) and sixty-two typically developing children (mean age = 7.97±1.05) were recruited to the DCD and control group respectively. All children received a foot posture assessment and a whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Foot Posture Index 6 (FPI-6) total scores, sub-scores and lower limb body composition measures including fat mass, lean mass, total mass, fat percentage and fat mass index were measured.
Results: Children with DCD revealed a significantly higher FPI-6 left (1.12; 95% CI: 0.172, 2.061) and right (1.15; 95% CI: 0.218, 2.079) total score. FPI-6 sub-scores (talar head palpation and abduction/adduction forefoot on rearfoot) illustrated significant differences between children with and without DCD. Children with DCD had a significantly higher total fat mass (1247.48g; 95% CI: 121.654, 2373.304), total fat percentage (1.82%; 95% CI: 0.115, 3.525) and fat mass index (0.56kg/m2; 95% CI: 0.036, 1.069). There was a significant relationship between FPI-6 right total score and total fat percentage.
Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that children with DCD exhibited significantly more pronated foot posture and higher body composition measures compared to typically developing children. Moreover, with FPI-6 right total score significantly related to the total fat percentage, it may require more than just detecting abnormal foot structures in children with DCD but also promoting a healthy lifestyle to prevent obesity. Copyright © 2022 Yam et al.