External locus-of-hope and collectivist coping in students from three Asian cities

Allan B. I. BERNARDO, Homer S. YABUT, Tulips Yiwen WANG, Siu Sze YEUNG

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The positive education movement has called attention to the importance of student well-being and the role of positive constructs, such as hope, in the educational process. The external locus-of-hope dimensions, or positive cognitions about the role of external actors in the pursuit of important goals, positively predict student well-being, learning approaches, and achievement. However, external locus-of-hope dimensions were found to be associated with maladaptive coping styles among Asian students. In this study, we revisit this relationship between external locus-of-hope dimensions and coping among students, by focusing on collectivist coping strategies that are assumed to be more relevant to Asian students. A total of 780 university students from three Asian cities (Hong Kong, n = 295; Macau, n = 225; Manila, n = 260) were asked to complete a questionnaire on collectivist coping styles, internal and external locus-of-hope dimensions. Separate multiple regression analyses indicated that the coping style of acceptance/reframing/striving was mainly predicted by internal locus-of-hope in the three groups, but the coping styles of family support and religious coping were consistently predicted by external locus-of-hope dimensions in all three groups of students. The two other coping styles of avoidance/detachment and personal emotional outlets were also predicted by specific external locus-of-hope dimensions, but only in particular groups. The results are discussed in terms of how external locus-of-hope dimensions might evoke both adaptive and maladaptive coping among Asian students, which may be associated with primary and secondary control dimensions of the collectivist coping styles. Copyright © 2022 by the authors.
Original languageEnglish
Article number844
JournalEducation Sciences
Issue number12
Early online date22 Nov 2022
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


Bernardo, A. B. I., Yabut, H. S., Wang, T. Y., & Yeung, S. S. (2022). External locus-of-hope and collectivist coping in students from three Asian cities. Education Sciences, 12(12). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12120844


  • Positive education
  • Collectivist coping
  • Hope theory
  • Locus-of-hope
  • University students
  • Coping strategies
  • Culture


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