Exploring the cross-cultural validity of the Sense of Self (SoS) scale in Hong Kong and the Philippines

Dennis Michael MCINERNEY, Fraide A. GANOTICE, Ronnel Bornasal KING, David A. WATKINS

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


This study explored the applicability of the Sense of Self (SOS) scale within the Asian context. Adolescent high school students in Hong Kong (N = 697) and the Philippines (N = 709) were asked to complete the 26-item SOS scale which measures students’ sense of purpose, sense of reliance, negative self-concept, and positive self-concept. Preliminary analysis showed that internal reliability coefficients of the SOS were all adequate for the two groups of participants. Separate confirmatory factor analyses indicated a good fit between the hypothesized models and Hong Kong and Filipino data. Multi-group confirmatory factor analyses indicated invariant factor loadings for the SOS in the Hong Kong and Filipino contexts. Implications for cross-cultural research are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2011



McInerney, D. M., Ganotice, F. A., King, R. B., & Watkins, D. A. (2011, June). Exploring the cross-cultural validity of the sense of self (SOS) Scale in Hong Kong and the Philippines. Paper presented at the Sixth Self Biennial International Conference: The centrality of SELF theory and research for enabling human potential, Laval University, Quebec City, Canada.