This study explores how child and text clues were related to 31 kindergarteners’ word-meaning derivation outcomes for 372 words presented in books read aloud to children. Data were analyzed using a multilevel, cross-classification, ordered logit model. Children showed no word-meaning derivation 40% of the time, indicating a need for instruction. Better word-meaning outcomes were related to text factors (written text clues in close proximity to the word) and child factors (literal comprehension and metacognition). Thus, using text with written clues in close proximity to the word and building children's literal comprehension and metacognition may improve word-meaning derivation. Copyright © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.