Examining the effects of mixed and non-digital gamification on students' learning performance, cognitive engagement and course satisfaction

Shen Maggie QIAO, Siu Sze YEUNG, Zamzami ZAINUDDIN, Davy Tsz Kit NG, Samuel Kai Wah CHU

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Gamification is typically implemented digitally. However, digital gamification is not always possible because of limited resources and logistical problems. It is thus necessary to explore low-threshold gamification methods that can be easily adopted in classrooms. One such method is non-digital gamification using physical game design elements. Currently, the literature provides a limited understanding of the design and effects of non-digital gamification. It is also unclear whether mixed gamification (ie, a combination of digital and non-digital gamification) is better than purely non-digital gamification. We explored these topics using an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design to compare the effectiveness of non-digital gamification in a face-to-face course and mixed gamification in a blended course in terms of student learning achievement, cognitive engagement and course satisfaction. Two secondary grade classes were randomly assigned to the mixed (N = 52) or non-digital (N = 52) gamification conditions. Contrary to our expectations, the quantitative results showed that the two approaches improved the students' learning achievement to the same extent. Although the students in the non-digital gamification condition reported significantly higher-course satisfaction than those in the mixed condition, the improvement in student cognitive engagement was significantly greater in the mixed gamification condition than in the non-digital condition. Through focus group interviews, we analysed the students' learning experiences and synthesised the factors that influenced student cognitive engagement and course satisfaction. Copyright © 2022 British Educational Research Association.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)394-413
JournalBritish Journal of Educational Technology
Volume54
Issue number1
Early online dateJun 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023

Citation

Qiao, S., Yeung, S. S.-S., Zainuddin, Z., Ng, D. T. K., & Chu, S. K. W. (2023). Examining the effects of mixed and non-digital gamification on students' learning performance, cognitive engagement and course satisfaction. British Journal of Educational Technology, 54(1), 394-413. doi: 10.1111/bjet.13249

Keywords

  • Cognitive engagement
  • Course satisfaction
  • Digital gamification
  • Non-digital gamification

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