Gamification is typically implemented digitally. However, digital gamification is not always possible because of limited resources and logistical problems. It is thus necessary to explore low-threshold gamification methods that can be easily adopted in classrooms. One such method is non-digital gamification using physical game design elements. Currently, the literature provides a limited understanding of the design and effects of non-digital gamification. It is also unclear whether mixed gamification (ie, a combination of digital and non-digital gamification) is better than purely non-digital gamification. We explored these topics using an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design to compare the effectiveness of non-digital gamification in a face-to-face course and mixed gamification in a blended course in terms of student learning achievement, cognitive engagement and course satisfaction. Two secondary grade classes were randomly assigned to the mixed (N = 52) or non-digital (N = 52) gamification conditions. Contrary to our expectations, the quantitative results showed that the two approaches improved the students' learning achievement to the same extent. Although the students in the non-digital gamification condition reported significantly higher-course satisfaction than those in the mixed condition, the improvement in student cognitive engagement was significantly greater in the mixed gamification condition than in the non-digital condition. Through focus group interviews, we analysed the students' learning experiences and synthesised the factors that influenced student cognitive engagement and course satisfaction. Copyright © 2022 British Educational Research Association.
CitationQiao, S., Yeung, S. S.-S., Zainuddin, Z., Ng, D. T. K., & Chu, S. K. W. (2022). Examining the effects of mixed and non-digital gamification on students' learning performance, cognitive engagement and course satisfaction. British Journal of Educational Technology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/bjet.13249
- Cognitive engagement
- Course satisfaction
- Digital gamification
- Non-digital gamification