Examining the association of grit with test emotions among Hong Kong Chinese primary school students

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Passion and perseverance for long-term goals or grit has been linked to various indices of educational success such as academic achievement, engagement, and motivation. Despite the nascent evidence regarding the beneficial impact of grit, previous investigations adopted a variable-centered approach which could not explore how individuals with different profiles of grit may differ in terms of academic outcomes. The current research aimed to build on the existing grit literature through examining the linkage of grit to test emotions using a person-centered approach among 1,051 Hong Kong Chinese primary school students. Results of cluster analyses showed that there were three naturally-occurring profiles of grit (Cluster 1 = High Perseverance and High Consistency; Cluster 2 = High Perseverance and Low Consistency; Cluster 3 = Low Perseverance and High Consistency) in the present study. Results of the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) demonstrated that students who belonged to Cluster 2 had the highest scores on hope and lowest scores on anxiety and shame. The results imply that espousing high perseverance of effort and low consistency of interest is associated with higher levels of positive activating emotions and reduced levels of negative activating emotional states when taking academic tests. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)510-525
JournalSchool Psychology International
Issue number5
Early online dateAug 2018
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2018



Datu, J. A. D., & Fong, R. W. (2018). Examining the association of grit with test emotions among Hong Kong Chinese primary school students. School Psychology International, 39(5), 510-525. doi: 10.1177/0143034318793468


  • Collectivist context
  • Grit
  • Person-centered approach
  • Test emotions