Everyday life experiences for evaluating post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms

Li LIANG, George A. BONANNO, Clint HOUGEN, Stevan E. HOBFOLL, Wai Kai HOU

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Previous research has highlighted the importance of regularizing daily routines for maintaining mental health. Little is known about whether and how regularity of daily routines is associated with reduced post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. 

Objective: We aimed to examine the associations between regularity of daily routines and PTSD symptoms in two studies (N = 796). 

Method: In Study 1, prospective data were analysed with the latent change score model to investigate the association between sustainment of regular daily routines and change in PTSD symptoms over time amid massive civil unrest in Hong Kong in 2019. Study 2 used vignette as a quasi-experimental method to assess the ability of maintaining regular daily routines in face of a major stressor, and tested its associations with PTSD symptoms. 

Results: In Study 1, increased regularity of diverse daily routines was inversely associated with increased PTSD symptoms amid the civil unrest in Hong Kong (β = −.427 to −.224, 95% confidence intervals [−.543 to −.359, −.310 to −.090], p values <.01). In Study 2, a greater ability to maintain regular daily routines during stress was associated with lower levels of PTSD symptoms (β = −.285 to −.096, 95% confidence intervals [−.379 to −.189, −.190 to −.003], p values <.05). 

Conclusions: Our findings suggest the benefit of considering diverse everyday activities in evaluating PTSD symptoms in both clinical and subclinical populations. Interventions with the direct focus on the role of daily living could promote psychological resilience during and after potentially traumatic events. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Translated title of the contribution 用于评估创伤后应激障碍 (PTSD) 症状的日常生活经历
Original languageEnglish
Article number2238584
JournalEuropean Journal of Psychotraumatology
Issue number2
Early online dateAug 2023
Publication statusPublished - 2023


Liang, L., Bonanno, G. A., Hougen, C., Hobfoll, S. E., & Hou, W. K. (2023). Everyday life experiences for evaluating post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 14(2). Article 2238584. https://doi.org/10.1080/20008066.2023.2238584


  • PTSD symptom
  • Trauma exposure
  • Daily routines
  • Regularity
  • Context sensitivity and responsiveness to feedback
  • PTSD症狀
  • 創傷暴露
  • 日常生活
  • 規律性
  • 情境敏感性和回饋反應
  • Alt title: Experiencias de la vida cotidiana para evaluar los síntomas del trastorno de estrés postraumático
  • Alt title:《用於評估創傷後應激障礙 (PTSD) 症狀的日常生活經歷》


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