Entrepreneurial leadership of academic managers in cram schools under double reduction policy in China: Conceptualizing competencies and resilience

Lai Yin KWOK, William Wei Lin WANG

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Leadership issues in shadow education are under-researched in national, regional and international contexts. In China, local and central governments have imposed stringent control on academic K9 paid tutorial lessons, provided by cram schools under the new double reduction policy (DRP). Many large-scale cram schools have undergone drastic changes in their organizational structure, marketing strategies and the working environment under the COVID-19 attack and DRP. This study aims to conceptualize how their academic managers in some regions of China exhibited traits of entrepreneurial leadership involving competence and resilience. Qualitative research methods included content analysis of policy documents, observation of tutorial lessons and semi-structured interviews with academic managers. Without overgeneralization, this study merely acts as a motivational guide for complementing the existing research literature on cram schools in China and enriching the international research literature on entrepreneurial leadership in mass tutoring. Copyright © 2023 Fundacion Infancia y Aprendizaje.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)809-843
JournalJournal for the Study of Education and Development
Volume46
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023

Citation

Kwok, P. L. Y., & Wang, W. W. L. (2023). Entrepreneurial leadership of academic managers in cram schools under double reduction policy in China: Conceptualizing competencies and resilience. Journal for the Study of Education and Development, 46(4), 809-843. https://doi.org/10.1080/02103702.2023.2234247

Keywords

  • Cram schools
  • Shadow education
  • Entrepreneur leadership
  • Competence
  • Resilience
  • Alt. title: El liderazgo emprendedor de los gestores académicos en los centros de apoyo al estudio ante una política de reducción doble en China: Conceptualización de las competencias y la resiliencia
  • Centros de apoyo al estudio
  • Educación en la sombra
  • Liderazgo emprendedor
  • Competencia
  • Resiliencia

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