The magnetic Fe⁰@Fe₃O₄ nanocomposite was prepared and used to achieve the reductive/subsequent oxidative ring-opening of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) in this work. The characterization results indicated that the structure of the composite consisted of small nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles surrounding the surface of Fe₃O₄ nanoparticle (NP). A 100% removal efficiency and 80% degradation efficiency of BDE209 was reached by the composite accompanied with ultrasound(called NP/US system) for 36 h, which is higher than that obtained with conventional nZVI particles. Furthermore, the enhanced debromination and ring-opening of BDE209 was realized by a Fenton-like degradation process lasting for 12 h after the addition of H₂O₂ to the NP/US reaction at 36 h. Based on the degradation products identified, a two-stage reduction/oxidation degradation mechanism was proposed. During the first stage, which was reductive debromination, the major reductive activity of nZVI was efficiently enhanced in the presence of nano Fe₃O₄, which served as a catalyst to improve the stability of the nZVI nanoparticles and accelerate electron transfer, enhancing the degradation efficiency of BDE209. During the second stage, the oxidative ring-opening, the debromination products of BDE209 were proved to be attacked by abundant hydroxyl radicals generated both in the solution and on the surface of the Fe⁰@Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles. Thus, this work provides an efficient method to achieve the complete ring-opening of PBDEs using iron-based nanomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers
CitationTan, L., Lu, S., Fang, Z., Cheng, W., & Tsang, E. P. (2017). Enhanced reductive debromination and subsequent oxidative ring-opening of decabromodiphenyl ether by integrated catalyst of nZVI supported on magnetic Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 200, 200-210.
- Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209)
- Fe⁰⁰@Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles
- Two stage