English as an international language perception scale: Development, validation, and application

Yuji NAKAMURA, Ju Seong LEE, Kilryoung LEE

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review


The issue of English as an international language (EIL) perception has received considerable attention among EIL researchers and practitioners. However, several studies in the EIL perception have not provided validity and reliability information pertaining to the instrument (e.g. a questionnaire), which may have affected the accuracy and interpretation of data. Further, there is currently no validated EIL Perception Scale (EILPS) that EIL researchers and practitioners can utilize in an accessible manner. To address these concerns, this study develops EILPS that is theoretically underpinned and empirically validated through Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses with two large samples of Korean EFL students (N = 277, N=278). Results provide support for a four-factor solution that encompasses 1) Current Status of English (CSE); 2) Varieties of English (VE); 3) Strategies for Multilingual/Multicultural Communication (SMC); and 4) English Speakers’ Identity (ESI). This study contributes to helping EIL researchers and practitioners employ a validated instrument for measuring EIL perception in an approachable fashion and, ultimately, allowing generalization across settings. Research and pedagogical recommendations — e.g. how EILPS can be applied in research and practice settings — are also made. Copyright © 2018 慶應義塾大學日吉紀要刊行委員會.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)189-208
JournalLanguage, Culture and Communication
Publication statusPublished - 2018


Nakamura, Y., Lee, J. S. J., & Lee, K. (2018). English as an international language perception scale: Development, validation, and application. Language, Culture and Communication, 50, 189-208.


  • English as an international language (EIL)
  • EIL Perception Scale (EILPS)
  • Scale development and validation
  • Exploratory factor analysis
  • Confirmatory factory analysis
  • Alt. title: 「国際語としての英語」認知評価スケール:開発,妥当性検証と応用
  • Alt. title: 「コクサイゴ トシテ ノ エイゴ」 ニンチ ヒョウカ スケール:カイハツ,ダトウセイ ケンショウ ト オウヨウ
  • Alt. title: "Kokusaigo toshite no Eigo" ninchi hyōka sukēru: Kaihatsu, datōsei kenshō to ōyō


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