Endocrine disrupting chemicals in children's and their parents' urine: Is the exposure related to the Chinese and Western lifestyle?

Na LI, Jing LIU, Guangguo YING, John Chi Kin LEE, Ting Fan LEUNG, Adrian COVACI, Wenjing DENG

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

Abstract

Children are known to be more vulnerable to exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) compared to adults, but evaluating the exposure pathways can be challenging. This research employed target and non-target analysis (NTA) to examine the exposure characteristics of EDCs in spot urine samples collected from 46 children's (aged 3–12 years) and their parents in Hong Kong (Chinese/Western lifestyle) and Guangzhou (mainly Chinese lifestyle). The results revealed that the geometric mean concentrations of phthalate esters metabolites (mPAEs) and bisphenols (BPs) in children's urine were 127.3 μg/gcrea and 2.5 μg/gcrea in Guangzhou, and 93.7 μg/gcrea and 2.9 μg/gcrea in Hong Kong, respectively, which were consistent with global levels. NTA identified a total of 1069 compounds, including 106 EDCs, commonly detected in food, cosmetics, and drugs. Notable regional differences were observed between Guangzhou and Hong Kong with potential sources of EDCs including dietary and cosmetic additives, toys, flooring and dust, as well as differences in lifestyles, diet, and living environment. However, age was found to significantly impact EDC exposure. The quantified EDCs (mPAEs and BPs) posed possible health risks to 60% of the children. Moreover, the presence of caffeine in children's urine, which exhibited higher detection rates in children from Hong Kong (95.6%) and Guangzhou (44.4%), warrants further attention. The sources of EDCs exposure in these regions need to be fully confirmed. Copyright © 2024 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114383
JournalInternational Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Volume259
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024

Citation

Li, N., Liu, J., Ying, G., Lee, J. C.-K., Leung, T. F., Covaci, A., & Denf, W.-J., (2024). Endocrine disrupting chemicals in children's and their parents' urine: Is the exposure related to the Chinese and Western lifestyle? International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 259, Article 114383. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2024.114383

Keywords

  • Urine
  • Children
  • Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs)
  • Target and non-target analysis (NTA)
  • Chinese and Western lifestyle

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