Landfills commonly occupy large areas of land that may be ecologically important. Ecological restoration of landfill cover is a necessary approach to rebuild sustainable habitats. However, unfavourable soil conditions and invasion by exotic plants in certain regions hinder the restoration. In this study, the effects of biochar as a soil amendment on the restoration of a landfill cover were investigated under field condition. Topsoils of a landfill cover in the subtropical region (Shenzhen, China) were mixed with 0, 5 and 10% (v/v) of biochar. Soil pH, electronic conductivity, organic matter, total organic carbon, water content, total N and total P were enhanced by biochar amendment. After nine months of self-succession, plant productivity, species richness and diversity were enhanced by biochar. The structures of soil bacterial and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities were changed, and species richness and diversity were moderately promoted. Enhanced plant growth and diversity were probably attributed to a number of enhanced bacterial functions related to nutrient cycling including aerobic ammonia oxidation, aerobic nitrite oxidation, nitrification, sulphur respiration, nitrate respiration, nitrogen respiration, ureolysis, chemoheterotrophy and fermentation. The higher abundances of bacteria Streptomyces sp. and Pseudomonas sp. in biochar treatments potentially enhanced the AM fungal diversity. The bacterial diversity was more related to the soil properties, especially pH, than AM fungi. Continuous monitoring is necessary to track the changes of species composition and ecological functions over time. This is the first comprehensive study on the effects of biochar on the ecological performance of a man-made ecosystem. In addition to agricultural application, biochar can be used for restoring degraded lands. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
total organic carbon
CitationChen, X. W., Wong, J. T. F., Chen, Z. T., Tang, T. W. L., Guo, H. W., Leung, A. O. W., . . . Wong, M. H. (2018). Effects of biochar on the ecological performance of a subtropical landfill. Science of The Total Environment, 644, 963-975. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.379
- Disturbed habitat
- Soil microbiome
- Ecological function