Effects of alkaline and bioorganic amendments on cadmium, lead, zinc, and nutrient accumulation in brown rice and grain yield in acidic paddy fields contaminated with a mixture of heavy metals

Huaidong HE, Fung Yee Nora TAM, Aijun YAO, Rongliang Qiu, Wai Chin LI, Zhi Hong YE

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Abstract

Paddy soils and rice (Oryza sativa L.) contaminated by mixed heavy metals have given rise to great concern. Field experiments were conducted over two cultivation seasons to study the effects of steel slag (SS), fly ash (FA), limestone (LS), bioorganic fertilizer (BF), and the combination of SS and BF (SSBF) on rice grain yield, Cd, Pb, and Zn and nutrient accumulation in brown rice, bioavailability of Cd, Pb, and Zn in soil as well as soil properties (pH and catalase), at two acidic paddy fields contaminated with mixed heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn). Compared to the controls, SS, LS, and SSBF at both low and high additions significantly elevated soil pH over both cultivation seasons. The high treatments of SS and SSBF markedly increased grain yields, the accumulation of P and Ca in brown rice and soil catalase activities in the first cultivation season. The most striking result was from SS application (4.0 t ha⁻¹) that consistently and significantly reduced the soil bioavailability of Cd, Pb, and Zn by 38.5–91.2 % and the concentrations of Cd and Pb in brown rice by 20.9–50.9 % in the two soils over both cultivation seasons. LS addition (4.0 t ha⁻¹) also markedly reduced the bioavailable Cd, Pb, and Zn in soil and the Cd concentrations in brown rice. BF remobilized soil Cd and Pb leading to more accumulation of these metals in brown rice. The results showed that steel slag was most effective in the remediation of acidic paddy soils contaminated with mixed heavy metals. Copyright © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23551-23560
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Volume23
Issue number23
Early online dateSep 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2016

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Heavy Metals
paddy field
Cadmium
Nutrients
Heavy metals
Zinc
cadmium
Soil
rice
Lead
slag
zinc
heavy metal
Steel
Soils
Food
nutrient
steel
Slags
soil

Citation

He, H., Tam, N. F. Y., Yao, A., Qiu, R., Li, W. C., & Ye, Z. (2016). Effects of alkaline and bioorganic amendments on cadmium, lead, zinc, and nutrient accumulation in brown rice and grain yield in acidic paddy fields contaminated with a mixture of heavy metals. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(23), 23551-23560.

Keywords

  • Acidic paddy soils
  • Amendments
  • Bioavailability
  • Heavy metals
  • Rice
  • Soil properties