Effectiveness of chatbots in increasing uptake, intention, and attitudes related to any type of vaccination: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Paul Shing-fong CHAN, Yuan FANG, Doug H. CHEUNG, Qingpeng ZHANG, Fenghua SUN, Phoenix K. H. MO, Zixin WANG

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

Abstract

This systematic review and meta-analysis analyzed and summarized the growing literature on the effectiveness of chatbot-delivered interventions in increasing uptake, intention, and attitudes related to any type of vaccination. We identified randomized controlled studies (RCTs), quasi-experimental studies, and non-experimental studies from the following platforms: PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, Global Health, APA PsycInfo, and EMBASE databases. A total of 12 eligible studies published from 2019 to 2023 were analyzed and summarized. In particular, one RCT showed that a chatbot-delivered tailored intervention was more effective than a chatbot-delivered non-tailored intervention in promoting seasonal influenza vaccine uptake among older adults (50.5% versus 35.3%, p = 0.002). Six RCTs were included in the meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of chatbot interventions to improve vaccination attitudes and intentions. The pooled standard mean difference (SMD) of overall attitude change was 0.34 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.13, 0.55, p = 0.001). We found a non-significant trivial effect of chatbot interventions on improving intentions of vaccination (SMD: 0.11, 95% CI: −0.13, 0.34, p = 0.38). However, further evidence is needed to draw a more precise conclusion. Additionally, study participants reported high satisfaction levels of using the chatbot and were likely to recommend it to others. The development of chatbots is still nascent and rooms for improvement exist. Copyright © 2024 International Association of Applied Psychology.

Original languageEnglish
JournalApplied Psychology: Health and Well-Being
Early online dateJun 2024
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Jun 2024

Citation

Chan, P. S.-F., Fang, Y., Cheung, D. H., Zhang, Q., Sun, F., Mo, P. K. H., & Wang, Z. (2024). Effectiveness of chatbots in increasing uptake, intention, and attitudes related to any type of vaccination: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Applied Psychology: Health and Well‐Being. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/aphw.12564

Keywords

  • Chatbot
  • Effectiveness
  • Engagement
  • Intervention
  • Usability
  • Vaccination

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