This study compared the effects of a carbohydrate–electrolyte–protein solution (CEPS, 2% protein plus 4% carbohydrate), carbohydrate–electrolyte solution (CES, 6% carbohydrate), and noncaloric sweetened placebo (PLA) on both 21-km running performance and cognitive function. Eleven female recreational endurance runners performed a 21-km time-trial running on three occasions, separated by at least 28 days. In a randomized cross-over design, they ingested CEPS, CES, or PLA at a rate of 150 mL every 2.5 km with no time feedback. A cognitive function test was performed before and after the run. Participants ingested approximately 24 g/h carbohydrate plus 12 g/h protein in CEPS trial, and 36 g/h carbohydrate in CES trial during each 21-km trial. Time to complete the time-trial was slightly shorter (P < 0.05) during CES (129.6 ± 8.8 min) than PLA (134.6 ± 11.5 min), with no differences between CEPS and the other two trials. The CEPS trial showed higher composite of visual motor speed than the PLA trial (P < 0.05). In conclusion, CES feedings might improve 21-km time-trial performance in female recreational runners compared with a PLA. However, adding protein to the CES provided no additional time-trial performance benefit. CEPS feeding during prolonged exercise could benefit visual motor speed compared to PLA alone, but no differences in the performance of the other cognitive function tests were found. Copyright © 2017 Gui et al.