A field plot study was conducted on two types of paddy soils in the Taihu Lake Region, during the rice season of year 2000 in order to assess phosphorus (P) losses by runoff and vertical leaching, which are considered the two main pathways of P movement from paddy soil into its surrounding water course. Commercial NPK compound fertilizer and single superphosphate fertilizer were applied to furnish 0, 30, 150, and 300 kg applied P ha m⁻². The experiments consisted of three replicates of each treatment in Changshu site and four replicates in Anzhen site, with a plot size of 5×6 m² in a randomized block. Results revealed that the average concentration range for total P (TP) in runoff was 1.857–7.883, 1.038–5.209, 0.783–1.255 and 0.572–0.691 mg P l⁻¹ respectively for P300, P150, P30 and P0 in Anzhen, while it was 2.431–2.449, 1.578–1.890, 1.050–1.315 and 0.749–0.941 mg P l⁻¹ respectively in Changshu. In all treatments, particulate P (PP) represented a major portion of the TP lost in runoff, it was 80% in Anzhen, and it was even more (>90%) in Changshu. Phosphate fertilizer treatments significantly affected P concentrations and P loads in the runoff. The mean concentration and average seasonal TP load from the P150 plots were 1.809 mg P l⁻¹ and 395 g P ha m⁻² season⁻¹ respectively, and lower than that from the P300 plots (2.957 mg P l⁻¹ and 652 g P ha m⁻² season⁻¹). These were obviously higher than from the P30 (0.761 mg P l⁻¹ and 221 g P ha m⁻² season⁻¹) and P0 (0.484 mg P l⁻¹ and 146 g P ha m⁻² season⁻¹) respectively. There was no significant difference found between the P30 and the P0 in both sites. Under usual P application rate, there were total 31.7 and 20.6 tones P removed by runoff from permeable (Anzhen site) and waterlogged (Changshu site) paddy soils in the southern Jiangsu region (major part of the TLR) in the rice season of the year 2000. But if the P application rate is unusual high, or the Olsen P in soil accumulates to above a certain level, then this could sharply increase in the future. The average concentration of molybdate reactive phosphorus (MRP) in the vertical leachate from the four different P treatments ranged from 0.058 to 0.304 mg P l⁻¹ in Anzhen and from 0.048 to 0.394 mg P l⁻¹ in Changshu. P application rate significantly affected the MRP concentration at each depth in both sites, except for the 90 cm in Anzhen. The average MRP loads during the rice season moved by vertical leaching from the four treatments ranged from 163 to 855 g P ha m⁻² season⁻¹ in Anzhen and 208–1825 g P ha m⁻² season⁻¹ in Changshu. Vertical leachate movement does not necessarily mean that it moves towards surface water and contaminate the watercourses in this flat plain paddy soil region, it does, however, imply that P can move down from surface layers of soil to deeper levels. Copyright © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
CitationZhang, H. C., Cao, Z. H., Shen, Q. R., & Wong, M. H. (2003). Effect of phosphate fertilizer application on phosphorus (P) losses from paddy soils in Taihu Lake Region: I. Effect of phosphate fertilizer rate on P losses from paddy soil. Chemosphere, 50(6), 695-701. doi: 10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00207-2
- P rate
- P loss