Easier in hindsight: Profiles of Filipino beginning readers and non-readers

Katrina May DULAY, Sum Kwing CHEUNG, Catherine MCBRIDE

Research output: Other contributionOther contributions


Purpose: What are the cognitive competencies and family environments that characterize beginning readers of Cebuano?

Method: Based on a longitudinal dataset of 673 Cebuano children who were assessed across four time points over a period of 1½ years, 67 children who had at least one correct answer in a 15-word Cebuano word reading task at Time 4 were identified as readers and 67 children who scored zero in the same task were randomly selected as a control group. Children were 3- to 5- years old at Time 1 and were 5- to 7- years old at Time 4.

Results: Across the four time points, readers performed better on measures of vocabulary, phonological awareness, and letter name knowledge. From Times 2 to 4, readers demonstrated a higher level of print and word awareness. At Times 3 and 4, readers additionally outperformed non-readers in rapid automatized naming. On average, readers had richer home literacy environments, higher perceived interest in literacy, mothers with higher education levels, and parents who reported higher parental self-efficacy. Across different time points, children’s cognitive skills had small to medium correlations with family-related variables. Notably, a large increase in readers who could read all 15 Cebuano words correctly was observed between Time 3 and Time 4.

Conclusions: Overall, differences between readers and non-readers may be attributed to differences in early literacy skills and family environments. The transparent nature of Cebuano as a written language may account for the rapid acquisition of reading skills in the reader group. Copyright © 2018 Society for the Scientific Study of Reading (SSSR).
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2018


Dulay, K. M., Cheung, S. K., & McBride, C. (2018, July). Easier in hindsight: Profiles of Filipino beginning readers and non-readers. Poster presented at the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting Society for the Scientific Study of Reading (SSSR), Hilton Brighton Metropole, Brighton, UK.


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