The longitudinal study investigated the directionality and transfer mechanism of cross-linguistic transfer of phonological awareness between L1 and L2 in predicting early writing (word dictation) in Chinese children learning English as L2. Ninety primary school Grade 1 (P1) students were assessed on phonological awareness in Cantonese (syllable deletion, onset deletion, rime deletion, and tone awareness), phonological awareness in English (syllable deletion, rime detection, and phoneme deletion), Cantonese word writing, and English word writing at Time 1. These students were assessed on the same measures 1 year later at Time 2 when they were in Grade 2. The results demonstrated bidirectional cross-linguistic transfer of phonological awareness and early writing between Cantonese and English. It also showed that the transfers were achieved through same time writing skills (bidirectional) and future phonological awareness (from L1 to L2 only). No direct effect of earlier phonological awareness to later writing skill was found. Copyright © 2022 American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages.
CitationYeung, S. S.‐S., Qiao, S., Pan, D. J., & Lin, D. (2022). Directionality and developmental mechanism of cross-linguistic transfer of phonological awareness to early writing skill in young Chinese learners. Foreign Language Annals. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/flan.12650
- Cross-linguistic transfer
- Phonological awareness
- Word spelling