For many lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals, stigma may represent a psychosocial stressor that can disrupt sleep and impair health. The present study tested a stigma model of sleep health to examine whether experienced and anticipated discrimination, as well as associated primal threat, would affect sleep quality and, in turn, physical and mental health among LGB individuals. A total of 401 LGB individuals (201 women and 200 men; mean age = 27.48 years) from Hong Kong, China, provided cross-sectional questionnaire data on experienced and anticipated discrimination, primal threat, sleep disturbance, and self-rated physical and mental health. Path analyses showed that experienced and anticipated discrimination were associated with higher primal threat, which was, in turn, associated with greater sleep disturbance and then poorer physical and mental health. Bootstrap analyses further revealed that experienced and anticipated discrimination had significant indirect effects on sleep disturbance via primal threat and on physical and mental health via primal threat and sleep disturbance. In addition, multi-group analyses demonstrated that the mediation model held across women and men and across lesbian/gay and bisexual individuals. Theoretically, our findings highlighted the importance of considering the differential effects of experienced and anticipated discrimination, as well as the contributive role of primal threat, on the sleep quality and health status of LGB individuals. Practically, our findings pointed to the necessity of developing community-based stigma reduction programs and individual-oriented stigma coping interventions in order to facilitate LGB individuals to reduce discrimination-related primal threat and thereby improve sleep and health. Copyright © 2021 The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.
CitationChan, K. K. S., & Fung, W. T. W. (2021). Differential impact of experienced and anticipated discrimination on sleep and health among sexual minorities. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 50, 3053-3063. doi: 10.1007/s10508-021-01981-2
- Experienced and anticipated discrimination
- Primal threat
- Sleep disturbance
- Physical and mental health
- Sexual orientation