Developmental changes in executive functioning

Kerry LEE, Rebecca BULL, Moon-Ho Ringo HO

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

394 Citations (Scopus)


Although early studies of executive functioning in children supported Miyake et al.'s (2000) three-factor model, more recent findings supported a variety of undifferentiated or two-factor structures. Using a cohort-sequential design, this study examined whether there were age-related differences in the structure of executive functioning among 6- to 15-year-olds (N = 688). Children were tested annually on tasks designed to measure updating and working memory, inhibition, and switch efficiency. There was substantial task-based variation in developmental patterns on the various tasks. Confirmatory factor analyses and tests for longitudinal factorial invariance showed that data from the 5- to 13-year-olds conformed to a two-factor structure. For the 15-year-olds, a well-separated three-factor structure was found. Copyright © 2013 The Authors.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1933-1953
JournalChild Development
Issue number6
Early online dateApr 2013
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2013


Lee, K., Bull, R., & Ho, R. M. H. (2013). Developmental changes in executive functioning. Child Development, 84(6), 1933-1953. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12096


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