Although explicit measures of doping attitude are widely used, they are susceptible to bias due to social desirability. The current computerized measures of implicit attitudes are time-consuming and based on expensive software solutions. Recently, paper-and-pencil (p&p) Implicit Association Tests (IAT) have been developed, making it possible to test several participants simultaneously, anywhere, and with no need of computerized equipment and software. The present series of studies aimed at developing a French version of a p&p IAT to measure athletes’ attitudes toward doping (Chan et al., 2017): the IAT-Dop.
Four studies, including 212 participants (Mage = 25.49, SD = 5.73), followed Bardin et al. (2016) and Boateng et al. (2018) validation recommendations: (a) development of a preliminary version of the IAT-Dop based on the proposal of Chan’s tool (2017), (b) dimensionality and criterion validity tests demonstrating the structure of the p&p version, (c) test-retest reliability, and (d) first approach to construct validity.
The results showed that the IAT-Dop was able to measure implicit attitudes toward doping and was stable across time. Significant correlations between the computerized and p&p versions confirmed the construct validity. The p&p IAT-Dop showed several advantages over the computerized version (Lemm et al., 2008), including lower cost and ease of administration. By offering accurate measures and an easier, faster, and cheaper way to measure doping attitudes, this tool should contribute to the better assessment and understanding of the mechanisms related to doping, and it might be a useful new indicator in the evaluation of prevention programs.
CitationFilleul, V., d’Arripe-Longueville, F., Meinadier, E., Maillot, J., Chan, D. K.-C., Scoffier-Mériaux, S., & Corrion, K. (2023). Development of a French paper-and-pencil implicit association test to measure athletes’ implicit doping attitude (IAT-Dop). International Review of Social Psychology, 36(1), Article 8. https://doi.org/10.5334/irsp.651
- Implicit attitudes
- Doping in sport
- Indirect test
- Paper & pencil SC-IAT-P