Development of a classroom environment scale in Hong Kong

Chi Kin John LEE, Lai-mui Frances LEE, Hin-wah WONG

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The Hong Kong Classroom Environment Scale (HKCES) is a new instrument designed to assess upper primary and junior secondary school students’ perceptions of actual and preferred classroom environment. The development of the scale involved 2 stages of study. In the 1st stage of study, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses clearly identified 4 dimensions of classroom environment: teacher involvement, teacher support, order and student involvement and collaborativeness. In the 2nd stage of study, the instrument was administered to a new sample of about 6,000 students from 13 primary schools and 5 secondary schools for cross-validation. Copyright © 2003 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)317-344
JournalEducational Research and Evaluation
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2003


Lee, C.-K. J, Lee, L.-M. F., & Wong, H.-W. (2003). Development of a classroom environment scale in Hong Kong. Educational Research and Evaluation, 9(4), 317-344. doi: 10.1076/edre.9.4.317.17813


Dive into the research topics of 'Development of a classroom environment scale in Hong Kong'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.