Development and validation of the smart classroom inventory

Baoping LI, Siu Cheung KONG, Guang CHEN

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


This paper discusses the development and validation of the Smart Classroom Inventory (SCI). The SCI is derived from existing technology integration learning environment instruments, including TROFLEI, TICI and CCEI (ergonomic). To accurately describe the features of smart classroom, the factors of flexibility, learning data, learning experience are added to SCI, and the description of information technology usage of some items are also altered to fit the smart classroom environment. More than 640 11 to 15 years old students validated the instrument, revealing ten scales: Physical Design, Flexibility, Technology Usage, Learning Data, Differentiation, Investigation, Cooperation, Students Cohesiveness, Equity, and Learning Experience. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is 0.92 and 0.94 for the entire questionnaire in Actual and Preferred forms respectively. The results of EFA and CFA prove SCI to be a parsimonious instrument for assessing the smart classroom learning environment. In assessing Actual and Preferred learning environments, SCI results indicated that there are significant differences in all of the ten factors. Students’ perception of factors of Differentiation, Flexibility, Technology Usage, and Learning Data are the largest four actual–preferred discrepancies within the smart classroom learning environment. These suggest the importance of innovative application of the current information equipment, and schools should pay more attention to satisfying the students’ personalized learning demands. The differences between the gender and between the school settings indicate that smart classroom should integrate both the technology and the humanities factors into the design and application of smart classroom, as well as design multi-level learning activities to satisfy the choices of different age students. Copyright © 2015 Li et al.; licensee Springer.
Original languageEnglish
JournalSmart Learning Environments
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2015


Li, B., Kong, S. C., & Chen, G. (2015). Development and validation of the smart classroom inventory. Smart Learning Environments, 2(3). Retrieved June 24, 2016,


  • Smart learning environment
  • Smart classroom
  • Technology integration learning environment
  • Instrumentation


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