Critical consciousness has received growing attention in developmental science, but most of the work has been conducted in Western liberal democracies. A critical examination is needed to determine whether critical consciousness can be appropriately measured in less democratic societies, where opportunity structures are different from those in Western liberal democracies. To establish the psychopolitical validity of a measure of critical reflection in less democratic societies, this study developed the Critical Reflection Scale (CRS) based on a sample of 3,015 youths in China. The results support a two-factor model of critical reflection, including (1) recognition of social inequity and (2) awareness of everyday oppression. The findings reveal varying levels of critical reflection across age, gender, and sexual orientation. Two items of the CRS function differently between young women and men. The CRS demonstrates good internal consistency and convergent validity, indicating that it is a psychometrically sound measure of critical reflection. Copyright © 2022 Informa UK Limited.