Development and validation of instruments of information security deviant behavior

Man Ying Amanda CHU, Patrick Y.K. CHAU

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)


Information security deviant behavior (ISDB) of employees is a serious threat to organizations. However, not much empirical research on ISDB has been carried out. This paper attempts to develop and validate instruments of ISDB using an empirical method. Two instruments of ISDB are proposed and tested, including a four-item instrument of resource misuse (ISDB that is related to the misuse of information systems resources) and a three-item instrument of security carelessness (ISDB that is related to the employees' omissive activities when using computers or handling data). A rigorous instrument development process which includes three surveys and addresses six crucial measurement properties (content analysis, factorial validity, reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and nomological validity) is adopted. The implications of these two instruments for future empirical studies on ISDB are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93-101
JournalDecision Support Systems
Early online dateJun 2014
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2014


Empirical Research
Security of data
Information Systems
Reproducibility of Results
Data handling
Surveys and Questionnaires
Deviant behavior
Information security
Information systems


Chu, A. M. Y., & Chau, P. Y. K. (2014). Development and validation of instruments of information security deviant behavior. Decision Support Systems, 66, 93-101. doi: 10.1016/j.dss.2014.06.008


  • Information security
  • Deviant behavior
  • Instrument development
  • Measurement
  • Validity
  • Reliability