Development and validation of indicators for population injury surveillance in Hong Kong: Development and usability study

Keith T S TUNG, Rosa Sze Man WONG, Frederick K HO, Ko Ling CHAN, Wilfred H S WONG, Hugo LEUNG, Ming LEUNG, Gilberto K K LEUNG, Chun Bong CHOW, Patrick IP

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Injury is an increasingly pressing global health issue. An effective surveillance system is required to monitor the trends and burden of injuries. 

Objective: This study aimed to identify a set of valid and context-specific injury indicators to facilitate the establishment of an injury surveillance program in Hong Kong. 

Methods: This development of indicators adopted a multiphased modified Delphi research design. A literature search was conducted on academic databases using injury-related search terms in various combinations. A list of potential indicators was sent to a panel of experts from various backgrounds to rate the validity and context-specificity of these indicators. Local hospital data on the selected core indicators were used to examine their applicability in the context of Hong Kong. 

Results: We reviewed 142 articles and identified 55 indicators, which were classified into 4 domains. On the basis of the ratings by the expert panel, 13 indicators were selected as core indicators because of their good validity and high relevance to the local context. Among these indicators, 10 were from the construct of health care service use, and 3 were from the construct of postdischarge outcomes. Regression analyses of local hospitalization data showed that the Hong Kong Safe Community certification status had no association with 5 core indicators (admission to intensive care unit, mortality rate, length of intensive care unit stay, need for a rehabilitation facility, and long-term behavioral and emotional outcomes), negative associations with 4 core indicators (operative intervention, infection rate, length of hospitalization, and disability-adjusted life years), and positive associations with the remaining 4 core indicators (attendance to accident and emergency department, discharge rate, suicide rate, and hospitalization rate after attending the accident and emergency department). These results confirmed the validity of the selected core indicators for the quantification of injury burden and evaluation of injury-related services, although some indicators may better measure the consequences of severe injuries. 

Conclusions: This study developed a set of injury outcome indicators that would be useful for monitoring injury trends and burdens in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2022 Keith T S Tung, Rosa S Wong, Frederick K Ho, Ko Ling Chan, Wilfred H S Wong, Hugo Leung, Ming Leung, Gilberto K K Leung, Chun Bong Chow, Patrick Ip.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere36861
JournalJMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


Tung, K. T. S., Wong, R. S., Ho, F. K., Chan, K. L., Wong, W. H. S., Leung, H., Leung, M., Leung, G. K. K., Chow, C. B., & Ip, P. (2022). Development and validation of indicators for population injury surveillance in Hong Kong: Development and usability study. JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, 8(8), Article e36861.


  • Injury
  • Indicators
  • Modified Delphi research design
  • Surveillance


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