Development and validation of a blended learning perception scale for higher vocational students

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Blended learning, a pedagogical approach that seamlessly integrates online and offline teaching methods, has evolved into a pivotal component of higher education. In order to assess students’ perspectives on their experiences with blended learning in higher vocational schools, we developed a comprehensive tool known as the Blended Learning Perception Scale (BLPS). The scale’s reliability and validity have been rigorously substantiated through data obtained from 600 students enrolled in a vocational school in China. The creation of this scale primarily entailed the application of quantitative methodologies, including both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The final scale encompasses 24 items, categorizing student perceptions into five distinct factors: content coherence, interaction effectiveness, platform functionality, learning motivation, and learning satisfaction. Collectively, these factors elucidate 68.346% of the total variance. Moreover, the Cronbach’s coefficients (α) for these factors range from 0.791 to 0.842, denoting a high degree of internal consistency and thereby establishing the scale’s reliability. Item-based analysis further substantiates the scale’s reliability and discriminability, while confirmatory factor analysis unequivocally confirms its structural validity. Each factor’s average variance extracted (AVE) ranges from 0.589 to 0.671, with a cumulative value of 2.766. Additionally, the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RSMEA) recorded at 0.053 underscores the scale’s satisfactory level of structural validity. In essence, this study presents a valid and dependable instrument for gauging students’ perceptions of blended learning, thoughtfully tailored to the specific attributes of higher vocational education and its students. Furthermore, it offers insights into the areas that necessitate further enhancement within blended learning programs. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s).

Original languageEnglish
Article number32
JournalResearch and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


Jiang, W., Zhan, Y., Sun, D., & Looi, C.-K. (2024). Development and validation of a blended learning perception scale for higher vocational students. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 19, Article 32.


  • Blended learning
  • Higher vocational education
  • Student perception
  • Scale development
  • PG student publication


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