Developing and implementing a framework of participatory simulation for mobile learning using scaffolding

Chengjiu YIN, Yanjie SONG, Yoshiyuki TABATA, Hiroaki OGATA, Gwo-Jen HWANG

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposes a conceptual framework, scaffolding participatory simulation for mobile learning (SPSML), used on mobile devices for helping students learn conceptual knowledge in the classroom. As the pedagogical design, the framework adopts an experiential learning model, which consists of five sequential but cyclic steps: the initial stage, concrete experience, observation and reflection, abstract conceptualization, and testing in new situations. Goal-based and scaffolding approaches to participatory simulations are integrated into the design to enhance students’ experiential learning. Using the SPSML framework, students can experience the following: (1) learning in augmented reality by playing different participatory roles in mobile simulations in the micro-world on a mobile device, and (2) interacting with people in the real world to enhance understanding of conceptual knowledge. An example of the SPSML-based system was implemented and evaluated. The experimental results show that the system was conducive to the students’ experiential learning and motivation. Moreover, the students who learned with the proposed approach gained significantly higher accuracy rates in performing the more complicated sorting algorithm. Copyright © 2013 International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)137-150
JournalEducational Technology & Society
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2013


educational technology


Yin, C., Song, Y., Tabata, Y., Ogata, H., & Hwang, G.-J. (2013). Developing and implementing a framework of participatory simulation for mobile learning using scaffolding. Educational Technology & Society, 16(2), 137–150.


  • Participatory simulation
  • Scaffolding
  • Mobile learning
  • Experiential learning model