Developing a design thinking engagement scale for early childhood teachers

Nanxi CHEN, Dandan WU, Huang-Yao HONG, Ching Sing CHAI, Jyh-Chong LIANG

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Engaging in design thinking activities has been increasingly viewed as important for the craft of teaching for early childhood practitioners. However, reliable and valid measurements for this are lacking. As such, this research aims to develop and validate a design thinking engagement scale (DTES) to assess teachers’ engagement in design thinking. A sample of 370 Chinese kindergarten teachers completed a questionnaire to test its reliability, validity and generality empirically. First, principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) both supported a five-factor structure of the DTES, indicating satisfactory construct validity. The total variance explained in PCA was 85.48%. Second, the reliability analyses within each sub-dimension and for the total DTES also showed an adequate internal consistency for the scale, ranging from .89 to .92 in PCA, and .84 to .94 in CFA. Besides, at CFA, the composite reliability (ρ) (.84 to .94) also indicated a good reliability. Moreover, both good convergent validity and discriminant validity were obtained through the method of average variance extracted (AVE) for each dimension (.64 to .80) and constraining the correlations between each pair of constructs respectively. Thus, the DTES can be a promising tool for measuring design thinking engagement among early childhood teachers. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Technology and Design Education
Early online date09 Feb 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 09 Feb 2023


Chen, N., Wu, D., Hong, H.‑Y., Chai, C. S., & Liang, J.‑C. (2023). Developing a design thinking engagement scale for early childhood teachers. International Journal of Technology and Design Education. Retrieved from


  • Teacher engagement
  • Design thinking
  • Factor analysis
  • Scale development
  • China


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