A robust method was developed for simultaneous determination of nine trace perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in various edible crop matrices including cereal (grain), root vegetable (carrot), leafy vegetable (lettuce), and melon vegetable (pumpkin) using ultrasonic extraction followed by solid-phase extraction cleanup and high liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The varieties of extractants and cleanup cartridges, the usage of Supelclean graphitized carbon, and the matrix effect and its potential influencing factors were estimated to gain an optimal extraction procedure. The developed method presented high sensitivity and accuracy with the method detection limits and the recoveries at four fortification levels in various matrices ranging from 0.017 to 0.180 ng/g (dry weight) and from 70% to 114%, respectively. The successful application of the developed method to determine PFCAs in various crops sampled from several farms demonstrated its practicability for regular monitoring of PFCAs in real crops. Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society.
CitationXiang, L., Chen, L., Xiao, T., Mo, C.-H., Li, Y.-W., Cai, Q.-Y., . . . Wong, M.-H. (2017). Determination of trace perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids in edible crop matrices: Matrix effect and method development. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 65(39), 8763-8772. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b02677
- Matrix effect
- Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids
- Solid-phase extraction clean-up
- Ultrasonic extraction