Cross-lagged relations between delayed actions and the wandering mind

Bertha Hei Ching KUM, Eliza A. MAIN, Rebecca Y.M. CHEUNG

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The present study investigated the longitudinal relationship between procrastination and mind wandering. A total of 196 Chinese adults participated in the study across three time points, spaced four months apart. Findings based on a cross-lagged panel model suggested that procrastination predicted mind wandering over time, but not the vice versa, thereby indicating the unidimensionality of effects from procrastination to mind wandering. Procrastination may be attributed to self-regulatory failure, resulting in off-task activities such as mind wandering. However, mind wandering does not necessarily lead to dilatory behaviors. The present findings provide insight to practitioners regarding the predictive effects of procrastination on mind wandering. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s).

Original languageEnglish
Article number112448
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Early online dateOct 2023
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


Kum, B. H. C., Main, E. A., & Cheung, R. Y. M. (2024). Cross-lagged relations between delayed actions and the wandering mind. Personality and Individual Differences, 217, Article 112448.


  • Procrastination
  • Mind wandering
  • Self-regulation
  • Cross-lagged relations


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