This study aimed to explore the cross-lagged association of achievements in mathematics and languages. While the effect of language on achievements in mathematics is well-documented, few studies have examined the reciprocal relationships among mathematics, the Chinese language and the English language in the same study. This study conducted a secondary analysis of longitudinal achievement data collected through the Territory-wide System Assessment (TSA) in Hong Kong. The sample comprised 48,547 third-grade, unbalanced bilingual students who were measured three times over six years: in 2007 (in Grade 3), 2010 (Grade 6) and 2013 (Grade 9). Multilevel cross-lagged analysis found prior achievement in a subject was the strongest predictor of achievement in that subject three years later. Furthermore, cross-subject bidirectional prediction was found among achievements in mathematics, Chinese language and English language for students from Grade 3 to Grade 6 and from Grade 6 to Grade 9. Copyright © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
CitationMok, M. M. C., Zhu, J., & Law, C. L. K. (2017). Cross-lagged cross-subject bidirectional predictions among achievements in mathematics, English language and Chinese language of school children. Educational Psychology, 37(10), 1259-1280. doi: 10.1080/01443410.2017.1334875
- Cross-lagged association
- Math achievement
- Achievement in Chinese language
- Achievement in English language