Cross-cultural validation of the academic motivation scale: A Singapore investigation

Imelda Santos CALEON, Ma Glenda Lopez WUI, Jennifer Pei-Ling TAN, Ching Leen CHIAM, Tan Chee SOON, Ronnel Bornasal KING

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41 Citations (Scopus)


Motivation, which refers to the force that drives a person to act, has been recognized as a crucial factor in promoting general well-being, along with a multitude of cognitive and psychological outcomes essential to thrive in varied domains and socio-cultural contexts. Motivation researchers have applied the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), which emerged out of the work of self-determination theorists, in numerous studies that were set in Western contexts. It includes seven dimensions of motivation: amotivation, extrinsic motivation (external regulation, introjection and identification), and intrinsic motivation (to know, to experience stimulation and to accomplish). The purpose of the present study was to examine the cross-cultural applicability of the AMS among Singapore secondary students using both within-network and between-network approaches to construct validation. To examine the within-network aspect of validity, we used confirmatory factor analyses. We also examined the invariance of the AMS across students of different genders and academic abilities. To assess the between-network aspect of validity, we correlated AMS scores with two constructs that are entwined with academic well-being: teacher autonomy support and academic engagement. Our results supported the proposed seven‐factor structure of AMS and this structure was found to be invariant across gender and ability groups. We failed to find empirical support for the simplex structure of ordered AMS subscales. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation scores were highly positively correlated, while amotivation negatively correlated with academic engagement and teacher autonomy support. Cross-cultural implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)925-942
JournalChild Indicators Research
Issue number4
Early online dateJan 2015
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2015


Caleon, I. S., Wui, M. G. L., Tan, J. P.-L., Chiam, C. L., Soon, T. C., & King, R. B. (2015). Cross-cultural validation of the academic motivation scale: A Singapore investigation. Child Indicators Research, 8(4), 925-942.


  • Academic motivation scale
  • Academic well-being
  • Motivation
  • Engagement
  • Autonomy support
  • Gender difference
  • Singapore
  • Construct validation


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