Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Chinese tinnitus functional index

Chi Shan KAM, Eric Kwok Shun LEUNG, Patrick Yiu Bong CHAN, Michael Chi Fai TONG

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)


Objectives: To establish the reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Chinese version of the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI-CH) in measuring tinnitus severity in Hong Kong Chinese population. 

Design: This is a cross-sectional psychometric validation study. 

Study sample: Subjects were 124 adult Chinese who attended the audiology clinics in a hospital setting for tinnitus treatment. 

Results: The TFI-CH showed good internal consistency reliability (α = 0.94) and test–retest reliability (ICC = 0.84). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the TFI-CH has eight factors which are exactly the same as the original version. The TFI-CH has good convergent and divergent validity as supported by the strong correlation of the overall scale with other tinnitus-related distress measures (r = 0.86, p < 0.01) and weaker correlation with the general health status measures. Moderate to strong effect sizes obtained 3 months after initial visit indicated that the TFI-CH is responsive in detecting change in tinnitus suffering. 

Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that the TFI-CH is a reliable and valid measure which should be useful in both clinical and research settings for intake assessment and for measuring treatment-related changes in tinnitus. Copyright © 2017 British Society of Audiology, International Society of Audiology, and Nordic Audiological Society.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)91-97
JournalInternational Journal of Audiology
Issue number2
Early online date18 Sep 2017
Publication statusPublished - 2018



Kam, A. C. S., Leung, E. K. S., Chan, P. Y. B., & Tong, M. C. F. (2018). Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Chinese tinnitus functional index. International Journal of Audiology, 57(2), 91-97. doi: 10.1080/14992027.2017.1375162


  • Tinnitus
  • Psychometric properties
  • Reliability
  • Validity
  • Chinese