Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Chinese tinnitus functional index

Chi Shan KAM, Eric Kwok Shun LEUNG, Patrick Yiu Bong CHAN, Michael Chi Fai TONG

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)


Objectives: To establish the reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Chinese version of the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI-CH) in measuring tinnitus severity in Hong Kong Chinese population. 

Design: This is a cross-sectional psychometric validation study. 

Study sample: Subjects were 124 adult Chinese who attended the audiology clinics in a hospital setting for tinnitus treatment. 

Results: The TFI-CH showed good internal consistency reliability (α = 0.94) and test–retest reliability (ICC = 0.84). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the TFI-CH has eight factors which are exactly the same as the original version. The TFI-CH has good convergent and divergent validity as supported by the strong correlation of the overall scale with other tinnitus-related distress measures (r = 0.86, p < 0.01) and weaker correlation with the general health status measures. Moderate to strong effect sizes obtained 3 months after initial visit indicated that the TFI-CH is responsive in detecting change in tinnitus suffering. 

Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that the TFI-CH is a reliable and valid measure which should be useful in both clinical and research settings for intake assessment and for measuring treatment-related changes in tinnitus. Copyright © 2017 British Society of Audiology, International Society of Audiology, and Nordic Audiological Society.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)91-97
JournalInternational Journal of Audiology
Issue number2
Early online date18 Sep 2017
Publication statusPublished - 2018


health status
factor analysis
Hong Kong
Validation Studies
Psychological Stress
Reproducibility of Results
Health Status
Statistical Factor Analysis
Cultural Adaptation
Effect Size
Confirmatory Factor Analysis


Kam, A. C. S., Leung, E. K. S., Chan, P. Y. B., & Tong, M. C. F. (2018). Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Chinese tinnitus functional index. International Journal of Audiology, 57(2), 91-97. doi: 10.1080/14992027.2017.1375162


  • Tinnitus
  • Psychometric properties
  • Reliability
  • Validity
  • Chinese