Coronavirus Pandemic Anxiety Scale (CPAS-11): Development and initial validation

Allan B. I. BERNARDO, Norman Biliwang MENDOZA, Patricia D. SIMON, Angela Lorraine P. CUNANAN, John Ian Wilzon T. DIZON, Maria Caridad H. TARROJA, Araceli Ma. BALAJADIA-ALCALA, Jesus Enrique G. SAPLALA

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26 Citations (Scopus)


The mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic will increase as the outbreak continues and persist even after the pandemic passes. We developed an 11-item Coronavirus Pandemic Anxiety Scale (CPAS-11) to measure symptoms of anxiety related to the COVID-19 pandemic to help identify individuals who might need mental health services. In developing the scale items, we considered previous research and theory on anxiety symptoms and symptoms reported by clinically referred cases in the Philippines. The scale was validated in a Filipino sample (N = 925). Exploratory factor analysis indicated two factors corresponding to somatic and non-somatic symptoms; confirmatory factor analysis showed good fit for the two-factor model. CPAS-11 showed good internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and screening accuracy. A cutoff score of 15 showed adequate sensitivity and specificity to distinguish GAD-7 screened participants. The results support the viability of CPAS-11 as a screening tool to identify individuals experiencing COVID-19-related anxiety. Copyright © 2020 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5703-5711
JournalCurrent Psychology
Issue number8
Early online date13 Nov 2020
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


Bernardo, A. B. I., Mendoza, N. B., Simon, P. D., Cunanan, A. L. P., Dizon, J. I. W. T., Tarroja, M. C. H., . . . Saplala, J. E. G. (2022). Coronavirus Pandemic Anxiety Scale (CPAS-11): Development and initial validation. Current Psychology, 41(8), 5703-5711. doi: 10.1007/s12144-020-01193-2


  • COVID-19
  • Coronavirus
  • Pandemic
  • Anxiety
  • Mental health screening
  • PG student publication


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