Road dust, household air-conditioning (AC) filter dust and PM2.5 were collected to investigate the contamination of metal(loid)s (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg and Pb) in outdoor and indoor urban environments of Guangzhou. Zinc was found to be the most abundant element in road dust and household PM2.5, while the concentration of Pb was the highest in AC filter dust. Enrichment factor (EF) was used to assess the influence of human activity on the contamination of these metal(loid)s. Ingestion and inhalation were the two exposure pathways applied for risk assessment. Physiologically based extraction test (PBET) was used to estimate the oral bioaccessibilities of metal(loid)s in road dust and AC filter dust. Respiratory bioaccessible fraction of metal(loid)s via household PM2.5 was extracted with lung simulating solution. Household AC filter dust was more hazardous to human health than road dust, especially to children. Arsenic was found to be the most risky element based on the risk assessment. Copyright © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.
CitationHuang, M., Wang, W., Chan, C. Y., Cheung, K. C., Man, Y. B., Wang, X., et al. (2014). Contamination and risk assessment (based on bioaccessibility via ingestion and inhalation) of metal(loid)s in outdoor and indoor particles from urban centers of Guangzhou, China. Science of The Total Environment, 479-480, 117-124. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.01.115
- Oral bioaccessibility
- Respiratory bioaccessibility
- Daily intake
- Risk assessment