Metacognition refers to an individual's knowledge, control and awareness of his/her learning processes. An important goal of education is to develop students as metacognitive, life-long learners. However, developing students' metacognition and evaluating whether classrooms are oriented to the development of students' metacognition are difficult and often time-consuming tasks. Further, no instruments that measure key dimensions related to classroom factors that specifically influence the development of students' metacognition have been available. This article describes the conceptualisation, design, and validation of an instrument for evaluating the metacognitive orientation of science classroom learning environments. The metacognitive orientation of a learning environment is the extent to which that environment supports the development and enhancement of students' metacognition. Social constructivism was the guiding referent informing the instrument's orientation and development. This instrument measures students' perceptions of the extent to which certain psychosocial dimensions, evident in learning environments where interventions have resulted in enhanced student metacognition, are evident in their science classrooms. Findings from the use of this instrument complement what is already known from research studies to be generally the case in relation to science classrooms' metacognitive orientation. Copyright © 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
CitationThomas, G. P. (2003). Conceptualisation, development and validation of an instrument for investigating the metacognitive orientation of science classroom learning environments: The Metacognitive Orientation Learning Environment Scale – Science (MOLES-S). Learning Environments Research, 6(2), 175-197.
- Social constructivism
- Science learning
- Student perceptions
- Learning environment