Co-application of concentrated biogas slurry and pyroligneous liquor mitigates ammonia emission and sustainably releases ammonium from paddy soil

Zichuan LI, Rui ZHANG, Jianfeng JIANG, Yanjun CHAI, Haijun YANG, Yutong ZONG, Wenbin TONG, Mengting YUAN, Ronghui LI, Lanting WANG, Shengdao SHAN, Ming Hung WONG

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

Abstract

Biogas production causes vast amounts of biogas slurry (BS). Application of BS to croplands can substitute chemical fertilizers while result in higher ammonia emissions. Tremendous variation of ammonium concentration in different BSs induces imprecise substitution, while concentrated BS holds higher and more stable ammonium. Pyroligneous liquor, an acidic aqueous liquid from biochar production, can be used with concentrated BS to reduce ammonia emission. However, the effects of combining concentrated BS with pyroligneous liquor on ammonia emission and soil (nitrogen) N transformation have been poorly reported. In this study, a field experiment applying concentrated BS only, or combining with 5 %, 10 %, and 20 % pyroligneous liquor (v/v) for substituting 60 % N of single rice cultivation was conducted by contrast with chemical fertilization. The results showed that substituting chemical N fertilizers with concentrated BS increased 24.6 % ammonia emission. In comparison, applying 5 %, 10 %, and 20 % pyroligneous liquor with concentrated BS reduced 4.9 %, 20.3 %, and 24.4 % ammonia emissions, respectively. Applying concentrated BS with more pyroligneous liquor preserved higher ammonium and dissolved organic carbon in floodwater, and induced higher nitrate concentration after fertilization. Whereas soil ammonium and nitrate contents were decreased along with more pyroligneous liquor application before and after the topdressing and exhibited sustainable release until rice harvest. In comparison, the soil N mineralization and nitrification rates were occasionally elevated, while the activities of soil urease, protease, nitrate reductase, and nitrite reductase had multiple responses. Applying concentrated BS only, or combining with 5 %, 10, and 20 % pyroligneous liquor, have little effect on soil basic properties but inorganic N. In summary, applying concentrated BS with >10 % pyroligneous liquor could preserve more N with sustainable release and potentially lower N loss to the atmosphere, and we proposed that applying 13.5 % pyroligneous liquor in concentrated BS could achieve maximum soil fertility and minimum ammonia emission. Copyright © 2023 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Article number169078
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume912
Early online dateDec 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024

Citation

Li, Z., Zhang, R., Jiang, J., Chai, Y., Yang, H., Zong, Y., Tong, W., Yuan, M., Li, R., Wang, L., Shan, S., & Wong, M. H. (2024). Co-application of concentrated biogas slurry and pyroligneous liquor mitigates ammonia emission and sustainably releases ammonium from paddy soil. Science of The Total Environment, 912, Article 169078. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.169078

Keywords

  • NH₃ emission
  • Nitrogen cycle
  • Concentrated biogas slurry
  • Pyroligneous liquor
  • Enzyme activities

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