Background: Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are involved in adaptive and survival responses to hypoxic stress in mammals. In fish, very little is known about the functions of HIFs.
Results: We have cloned and characterized two distinct HIF-alpha cDNAs - gcHIF-1alpha and gcHIF-4alpha - from the hypoxia-tolerant grass carp. The deduced gcHIF-1alpha protein is highly similar to the HIF-1alphas (57-68%) from various vertebrate species, while gcHIF-4alpha is a novel isoform, and shows an equivalent degree of amino acid identity (41-47%) to the HIF-1alpha, HIF-2alpha and HIF-3alpha proteins so far described. Parsimony analysis indicated that gcHIF-4alpha is most closely related to the HIF-3alpha proteins. Northern blot analysis showed that mRNA levels of gcHIF-1alpha and gcHIF-4alpha differ substantially under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, while Western blot studies demonstrated that the endogenous protein levels for both gcHIF-1alpha and gcHIF-4alpha are similarly responsive to hypoxia. Our findings suggest that both gcHIF-1alpha and gcHIF-4alpha are differentially regulated at the transcriptional and translational levels. HRE-luciferase reporter assays show that both proteins function as transcription activators and play distinct roles in modulating the hypoxic response in grass carp.
Conclusion: There are at least two distinct HIF-alpha isoforms - gcHIF-1alpha and gcHIF-4alpha - in the hypoxia-tolerant grass carp, which are differentially expressed and regulated in different fish organs in response to hypoxic stress. Overall, the results suggest that unique molecular mechanisms operate through these two HIF-alpha isoforms, which underpin the hypoxic response in the hypoxia-tolerant grass carp. Copyright © 2006 Law et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
CitationLaw, S. H. W., Wu, R. S. S., Ng, P. K. S., Yu, R. M. K., & Kong, R. Y. C. (2006). Cloning and expression analysis of two distinct HIF-alpha isoforms - gcHIF-1alpha and gcHIF-4alpha - From the hypoxia-tolerant grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus. BMC Molecular Biology, 7. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2199-7-15
- Rainbow trout
- Grass carp
- Normoxic condition
- Hypoxic induction
- Ctenopharyngodon idellus