This study examined the distinctive roles of chronotype and trait self-control in predicting sleep quality and the mediation of sleep hygiene habits and bedtime media use of the relations between chronotype, trait self-control and sleep quality. Self-report questionnaire measuring chronotype, trait self-control, sleep hygiene behaviors, bedtime media use and sleep quality was administered to 224 Chinese adult participants (83.5% female). A multiple mediation model was estimated with sleep hygiene habits and bedtime media use as parallel mediators of the relations between chronotype, trait self-control, and sleep quality. Chronotype and trait self-control positively predicted sleep quality. Results of mediation analyses indicated that trait self-control predicted sleep quality both directly and indirectly through pre-sleep stress management and keeping a restful sleep environment, whereas chronotype predicted sleep quality indirectly through pre-sleep stress management and bedtime media use. This study provides evidence for the possible mechanism through which eveningness and low trait self-control undermine sleep quality: Whereas bedtime media use and sleep timing irregularity are linked to poor sleep quality in evening types, environmental interference (e.g., noise or disorganization) appears to be more relevant to poor sleep quality in individuals low in self-control. These findings can inform the design of personalized sleep hygiene recommendations appropriate for the target population. Practical implications regarding sleep hygiene education and interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2022 Lin, Chung.