Chinese patriotism: Inward and outward perspectives

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Patriotic education in China is a state project that serves the Chinese government. However, current discourse on Chinese patriotic education basically views inward and outward aspects of patriotism as separate and incompatible, which downplays the intricate relationship between them. Arguably, a more nuanced understanding of patriotism is needed to better explore patriotic education in the context of China. This paper begins by elaborating the differences between inward and outward patriotism as illustrated by Marianna Papastephanou’s Janus-faced nature of patriotism. It then proceeds to give background information on Chinese patriotic education and illustrate how inward patriotism has been intrinsic to patriotic education in China from its beginnings. The paper further reveals that outward patriotism has been increasingly emphasized in today’s China. Finally, it proposes that the risks and potentials of both inward and outward patriotism should be realized and given full consideration and explains how balanced patriotism can help accommodate diverse needs and make Chinese development more sustainable. Copyright © 2022 Education Research Institute, Seoul National University.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAsia Pacific Education Review
Early online dateAug 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Aug 2022


Lin, J. C. (2022). Chinese patriotism: Inward and outward perspectives. Asia Pacific Education Review. Advance online publication.


  • Patriotic education
  • China
  • Patriotism
  • Inward–outward distinction
  • Global citizen


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