Chinese civic education being globalised: What changes have been made in civic education curriculum in China, Hong Kong and Macao

Yudan SHI, King Man Eric CHONG, Baihe LI

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the curriculum developments of civic education in three emerging Chinese societies: China and two Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macao, which are increasingly under the impacts of globalisation in this information world.
Design/methodology/approach: The analytical method is used and the following are identified: active and global civic education-related learning units and key themes and main contents in official curriculum guidelines and updated textbooks related to civic education.
Findings: A major finding is that elements of both active and global citizenship, such as participation in the community and understanding about the world and thus forming multiple identities, can be found alongside their emphasis on enhancing national citizenship. Thus, ideas of global citizenship and multiple levels of citizenship from local, national to global start to develop in these three Chinese societies.
Social implications: The implications of such findings of both active and global citizenship, as well as multiple identities, found in these three Chinese societies could be huge for informing civic literature and sociological point of views, in particular, pointing to the next generations receiving a broadened and transcended notion of multiple levels of citizenship, apart from local and national citizenship.
Originality/value: The significance of this paper is that it argues that ideas of active citizenship in terms of community participation and global citizenship have been found in China, Hong Kong and Macao civic education curriculum and textbooks because of the expectations placed on students to compete in a globalized world, though national citizenship and patriotic concerns have been primary concerns. Globalisation makes the world society by impacting on these three Chinese societies for active and global citizenship, though they still retain their particular curricular focusses. Copyright © 2019 Emerald Publishing Limited.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-63
JournalSocial Transformations in Chinese Societies
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2019



Shi, Y., Chong, E. K. M., & Li, B. (2019). Chinese civic education being globalised: What changes have been made in civic education curriculum in China, Hong Kong and Macao. Social Transformations in Chinese Societies, 15(1), 37-63. doi: 10.1108/STICS-11-2018-0016


  • China
  • Hong Kong
  • Macao
  • Global citizenship
  • Civic education
  • Active citizenship